2. Methods


2.1 Variables
Independent: Type of oil
Dependent: Consistency of the biodiesel obtained from various types of oil
Constants: Volume of oil, volume of sodium methoxide

As a control for the consistency of the biodiesel,we used the same volume of oil and volume of sodium methoxide and heat up the biodiesel to test the efficiency.

2.2 Equipment
-Beaker (500 ml) x 5
-Methanol x 1 bottle
-Metal scoop for stirring x 1
-Bunsen burner/ Hot plate x 1
-Lighter x 1
-Lye (Sodium Hydroxide) x 1 bottle
-Used Oil x 2 litres
-Vegetable Oil  x 2 litres
-Lard x 2 litres
-Metal Pot x 1
-Filter paper x 1 stack
-Separating funnel x 2
-Filtration funnel x 1
-Conical flask(1000cm3) x 1

2.3 Procedure
1  Pour 200 ml of the wasted oil through the filter paper to filter out the solid, visible impurities into a conical flask.
2  Pour the oil into a metal pot, and place it on the heating plate.
3  Heat and stir the oil till it reaches 90 degree celsius.
4  While heating up the oil, stir and check the temperature with a thermometer every two minute intervals for 10 minutes.
5  Pour the oil into the air-tight container quickly in order to preserve the heat.
6  Measure 40ml of  methanol with a measuring cylinder. Using a electronic weighing scale, measure for 0.7g of sodium hydroxide.
7 Dissolve the sodium hydroxide in the methanol.
8 Mix the heated oil (60˚C) with the methoxide mixture.
9 Shake the bottle in a circular direction until the sodium hydroxide is dissolved completely.
10 Pour the mixture into a separating funnel.
11   Wait for an ho ur for chemical reaction. Notice a darker coloured liquid, glycerin, settling at the bottom.
12   By using separating funnel, separate glycerin(bottom) from biodiesel(top).
13 After separating the both glycerin and obtained biodiesel, perform calorimetry test on the obtained biodiesel.
14 Repeat steps 1-14 again to confirm the reliability of results obtained from oil tested. After repeating this step twice, repeat the same steps with other types of oil.

Calorimetry test
1 Drop 1 ml of biodiesel into the cap of the bunsen burner and also 0.5 ml on the paper.
2 Cut a strip of filter paper, dimensions 5.2 x 5.7 cm, and roll it up.
3 Slot strip of rolled up paper into the hole of the calorimeter.
4 Fill a test tube with 30 cm3 of water, clip it onto a stand
5 Light up the piece of rolled up paper on the calorimetry. Measure both the time taken for the oil to burn out and also the temperature of the water. The final set up should look like Fig 1.4 above.
6 Repeat steps 1-5 again to confirm the reliability of results obtained from the same oil twice and on other biodiesel obtained from different oils.
7 Repeat steps 1-5 on other biodiesel obtained from different oils.
Risk assessment and management
Since we are handling flammable and corrosive chemicals, it is important to wear gloves
As we will be using a hotplate, we have to ensure that we turn of all switches after use, to prevent overheating.

2.4 Analysis
We did a consistency test, to find out which oil can stay burning for the longest time.

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